Are you curious about privacy and confidentiality in the blockchain space? Keen on learning why they’re key to the Ethereum ecosystem? Great! You’ve come to the right place. To learn blockchain development and be certified I recommend visiting Ivan on Tech Academy.
Blockchain is currently #1 ranked skill by LinkedIn. Because of that, you should definitely learn more about Ethereum to get a full-time position in crypto during 2020.
In my first and second pieces, I’ve discussed Ethereum 2.0 and the best tools for developers. In my third and fourth articles, I’ve discussed quadratic voting and open governance models. Then, in my fifth piece, I’ve looked into Swarm’s infrastructure.
In my sixth, seventh and eight ones, I’ve dove-deep into consensus algorithms and the blockchain trilemma. Lastly, I’ve looked into blockchain sharding technology, which projects are making it thrive and I’ve done an intro to Plasma and Looms.
This week I’ve discussed the value of cryptocurrency networks and hot and cold storage systems. Today I’m looking into privacy and confidentiality features and how are different projects implementing this cool technology. Why should Ethereum developers care about privacy?
Let’s find out!
And intro to privacy and confidentiality
Confidentiality cryptocurrencies, most commonly known as “privacy coins”, enable users to have complete confidentiality over their transactions and addresses.
When Bitcoin introduced cryptocurrencies to the world, privacy was an important underlying attribute. Of course, we know today that it’s possible to easily link IP addresses and usernames to Bitcoin and Ethereum addresses thanks to metadata. Plus, because all transactions are broadcasted publicly, users lose some privacy features there as well.
There are three main aspects of privacy in the context of cryptocurrencies:
- the identity of the user performing an operation using the cryptocurrency,
- the transaction data specific to the operation the user is performing,
- or, the total blockchain state formed by combining the knowledge of all transactions.
An easier way to understand the above points is to ask the following questions:
a) Do I know the identity of the user?
b) Can I see the transaction details sent by other users?
c) Can I see all blockchain transaction data and identify which addresses have which amounts?
By answering each of these questions, you can work out if any given cryptocurrency is confidential and private or not.
Not long after Bitcoin was developed and released, a number of confidential cryptocurrencies emerged with the sole goal of allowing users to transact freely with complete privacy and confidentiality. The five main privacy cryptocurrencies in use today are Monero, Zcash, Dash, Verge, and Grin. A brief analysis of each, when facing the above questions, can be seen below:
|Public transaction details|
|Blockchain analysis possible|
*Bitcoin is used for comparison only. It is not a privacy-focused cryptocurrency, however there are technologies enabling some levels of privacy.
It is helpful to organise approaches to privacy in cryptocurrencies by what techniques they use. There are a variety of privacy-enabling technologies in crypto with completely different working mechanics and goals. The main confidentiality technologies employed by privacy coins today are as follows:
- Layer 2 protocols like the Lightning Network, state channels, or Plasma allow small groups of users to transact among themselves “off-chain.” This means all intermediate states are stored between those users and only periodic summaries of state changes are written to the main blockchain. As a result, the intermediate states are invisible to outside observers because they never appear on the main blockchain at all. Of course, the Layer 2 protocol itself can have different levels of privacy for off-chain states among its participants, so this is more of an idea than a full-blown privacy technique.
- Ring signatures take inputs and outputs of different transactions and combine them into a single large transaction to obscure links between the addresses of senders and recipients. Monero is one such coin that uses ring signatures to obfuscate transaction information.
- TOR uses multi-layered Onion routing as a mechanism to hide users’ IP addresses. This technology is used by privacy coins such as Grin and Verge.
- CoinJoins is a mechanism that enables transactions from multiple senders to be batched into a single transaction, similar to ring signatures.
- Zero-knowledge proofs refers to data which demonstrates knowledge of a piece of information without revealing the information itself. When used correctly, this cryptographic technique can ensure both privacy of transactions and soundness of the blockchain. An example of a cryptocurrency using this technique is Zcash. Ethereum has ZK-snarks currently implemented at its core protocol.
- Mimblewimble features confidential transactions that allow for public verification of the transaction without revealing any significant details such as amounts or addresses. This technology also uses CoinJoins and Dandelion, an improved gossip protocol network that contains increased privacy mechanics. It uses hops in-between nodes before publicising transactions to neighbouring nodes. Mimblewimble is the underlying technology of the Grin and Beam privacy coins.
- Ivan On Tech Academy,
- Ivan On Tech ETH 2.0 code review,
- Build a blockchain in SECONDS,
- Functional programming in blockchain,
- ETH 2.0 discussion,
- Ethereum projects analysis,
- Role of consensus algorithms,
- Ethereum Plasma.
- tBTC paper.
This article is not financial advisement